Holiday Time 2018

Things have been pretty quiet around here this year. The temptation to embed music videos or insert other snippets of creativity has been resisted because, well, heteconomist has not really paid its way with the requisite quota of economics posts to justify it. Increasingly economics seems to be not only a lost cause but rather beside the point. In any case, with remarkable self-discipline any straying off topic has been put on hold until the Christmas/New Year period, which has now arrived. Hopefully all are well and enjoying a nice break.

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Productive and Unproductive Labor in a Macro Context

As is well known, Marx and the classical political economists before him made a distinction between productive and unproductive labor. Marx’s distinction somewhat differed from Smith’s. For Marx, labor is productive when it is: (i) directly productive of surplus value; and (ii) exchanged directly against capital. I remain unsure how applicable the distinction is to a state money system. Some of my misgivings are explained in an earlier post. The uncertainty has held back an attempt to explore connections between Marx and Modern Monetary Theory (MMT). To get around this, here I proceed on an as if basis by assuming for the sake of argument that the distinction is meaningful.

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